Goals from Tom Denton and Jordan Cropper secured a 2-1 victory at Victory Park as the Spireites moved out of the National League relegation zone.
John Pemberton kept the side that fell just short against Harrogate Town on Tuesday. Jamie Sharman was brought onto the bench in place of Regan Hutchinson.
The first attack came as Chesterfield started a dangerous breakaway towards the Chorley goal. The ball eventually found the feet of Denton at the second attempt but his shot was blocked by the home defence.
Just before the quarter of an hour mark, Denton managed to get an effort off towards goal. His curling shot was saved by Matt Urwin.
The hosts almost took the lead a couple of minutes later through Lewis Baines. The defender fired his attempt across goal but it drifted wide of the right-hand post.
Nathan Tyson created a couple of chances that troubled the Chorley goalkeeper. The forward made it past the defenders both times but Urwin held both efforts.
Five minutes before half time, the Spireites broke the deadlock. Haydn Hollis flicked on Liam Mandeville’s corner kick into the path of Denton, who stooped low and nodded in from a couple of yards.
During the break, Pemberton was forced to make a substitution. Shwan Jalal was forced off with an injury and Ross Fitzsimons took his place, making his debut for Chesterfield.
Tyson almost doubled the lead less than a minute into the second half. He used his pace to get through on goal but his attempt flew just over the crossbar.
Fitzsimons was called into action seven minutes later. The shot-stopper got down low to parry Alex Newby's powerful effort.
However, the Spireites got their second goal a few minutes after the hour mark. Tyson played an inch-perfect ball on the ground to the back post where Cropper tapped home from a tight angle.
The home side pulled a goal back in the last quarter of an hour. A quick free-kick found Connor Hall who rolled the ball past Fitzsimons and into the back of the net.
The last knockings of the game brought constant Chorley pressure, but Pemberton’s men defended resiliently and picked a crucial three points at Victory Park.
Chesterfield: Jalal (Fitzsimons, HT), Yarney, Evans, Hollis, Cropper, Weston, Smith, Buchanan, Mandeville (Weir, 82’), Tyson, Denton (Boden, 82’).
Unused Substitutes: Sharman, Fondop